Pollution Sources

The main sources of pollution are the various anthropogenic activities common all over the world. Centres of population inevitably generate discharges of organic matter, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and toxic chemicals. These waste products of human and industrial activities concentrate in the rivers draining into the Caspian Sea to create BOD loadings in excess of the potential for natural degradation, and often compounded by additional input from off-shore oil production installations. Apart from such more or less obvious point sources, there are also other, more diffuse, sources of pollution such as run of from agricultural land (containing fertilizers and pesticides), leaching from landfills, contaminated sites and others.

The table shows the overall pollution load to the sea from the main sources investigated to date.

Total pollution load to the Caspian Sea

     BOD N P E.Coli Oil Hg Cd
Sources T/y T/y T/y 10^15 C/y T/y T/y T/y
Rivers 641000 827000 88000 145000 75000 14 141
Municipalities 80000 24000 6000 5000 19000 1 2
Industries 25000 2000 1000 0 28000 2 6
Atmosphere 0 39000 800 0 350 0 0
Total 746000 892000 95800 150000 122350 17 149

Pollution Load

Coastal and off-shore industry



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